Acute complications of diabetes mellitus from out-patient department perspective


Authors: Zbynek Schroner
Authors‘ workplace: SchronerMED, s. r. o., interná a diabetologická ambulancia, Košice
Published in: Forum Diab 2015; 4(2): 119-123
Category: Main Theme: Review

Overview

Due to frequent occurrence of acute complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) also in out-patient departments, its proper management is very important. Prevention of these states is very important. Acute complications of diabetes mellitus can be divided into: metabolic decompensations and complications of antidiabetic treatment. To meta­bolic decompensations belong acute hyperglycemic states (diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic state). Diabetic ketoacidosis is acute metabolic emergency mainly of typ 1 diabetes mellitus. It is characterized by: hyperglycemia, acidosis and ketosis . Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic state is acute complication mainly of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The ketoacidosis is not present , what is explained by higher intra­portal insulin level, preventing mobilisation of free fatty acids. Lactic acidosis is the most serious complication of metformin therapy mainly in patients having risk factors. For this reason it is necessary to observe contraindications of metformin therapy. Hypoglycemias are the most frequent acute complications mainly in diabetics treated by insulin or sulphonylurea derivatives.

Key words:
diabetic ketoacidosis – hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic state – hypoglycemia – lactic idosis


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Labels
Diabetology Endocrinology Internal medicine
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