Complex management in diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease


Authors: Ján Murín 1;  Martin Wawruch 2;  Soňa Kiňová 1
Authors‘ workplace: I. interná klinika LFUK a UNB, Nemocnica Staré Mesto, Bratislava 1;  Ústav farmakológie a klinickej farmakológie LF UK a UNB, Nemocnica Staré Mesto, Bratislava 2
Published in: Forum Diab 2018; 7(1): 10-17
Category:

Overview

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2T) has an epidemic prevalence in our societies and a life-risk for development of diabetes in Europe is about 30–40 %. When a dia­betes is recognized in a patient, he or she is usually seriously cardiovascularly ill. We therefore search always for the presence of diabetes in every patient with a cardiovascular disease. Diabetes accelerates development of atherosclerosis and therefore enormously increases also cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A diabetic patient with another cardiovascular risk factor or with a target organ damage has a very high cardiovascular risk and he is in need of intensive treatment of all risk factors or cardiovascular diseases. We try to manage all his cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension (combined antihypertensive treatment – RAAS blockers included, with treated blood pressure ≤ 140/90 mm Hg), atherogenic dyslipidemia (atorva- or rosuvastatin in a high dose), antiplatelet treatment (aspirin, sometimes twice a day, or clopidogrel), antidiabetic drugs which reduce cardiovascular events (SGLT2 inhibitor or liraglutid) – STENO-2 study showed that with a control of all risk factors mortality can be reduced by 50%. Diabetic patient is in need of consultation with a diabetologist, but also cardiologist, nephrologist or some other experts.

Key words:
cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, risk factors

Received:
28. 11. 2017

Accepted:
5. 1. 2018


Sources

1. International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas 2017. 8th ed. Dostupné z WWW: <http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas>.

2. Murray CJL, Ezzati M, Flaxman AD et al. GBD 2010: design, definitions and metrics. Lancet 2012; 380(9859): 2063–2066. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140–6736(12)61899–6>.

3. Report of the expert Committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1997; 20(7): 1183–1197.

4. Barret-Connor EL, Cohn BA, Wingard DL et al. Why is diabetes mellitus a stronger risk factor for fatal ischemic heart disease in women than in men? The Rancho Bernardo Study. JAMA 1991; 265(5): 627–631.

5. Juutilainen A, Kortelainen S, Lehto S et al. Gender difference in the impact of type 2 diabetes on coronary heart disease risk. Diabetes Care 2004; 27(12): 2898–2904.

6. Kahn SE. The relative contributions of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2003; 46(1): 3–19. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125–002–1009–0>.

7. World Health Organization (WHO). Report of a WHO/IDF consultation. Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycaemia 2006. ISBN: 978 92 4 159493 6. Dostupné z WWW: <http://www.who.int/diabetes/publications/diagnosis_diabetes2006/en/>.

8. Colagiuri S, Lee CM, Wong TY et al. Glycaemic thresholds for diabetes -specific retinopathy: implications for diagnostic criteria for diabetes. Diabetes Care 2011; 34(1): 145–150. Dostupné z DOI: <https://doi.org/10.2337/dc10–1206>.

9. Glucose tolerance and mortality: comparison of WHO and American Diabetes Association Diagnostic criteria. The DECODE study group. European Diabetes Epidemiology Group. Diabetes Epidemiology: Collaborative analysis of Diagnostic criteria in Europe. Lancet 1999; 354(9179): 617–621.

10. Qiao Q, Dekker JM, de Vegt F et al. Two prospective studies found that elevated 2-hr glucose predicted male mortality independent of fasting glucose and HbA1c. J Clin Epidemiol 2004; 57(6): 590–596. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2003.10.007>.

11. Huxley R, Barzi F, Woodward M. Excess risk of fatal coronary heart disease associated with diabetes in men and women: meta-analysis of 37 prospective cohort studies. BMJ 2006; 332(7533): 73–78. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38678.389583.7C>.

12. Wannamethee SG, Papacosta O, Lawlor DA et al. Do women exhibit greater differences in established and novel risk factors between diabetes and non-diabetes than men ? The British Regional Heart Study and British Womenۥ´s Heart Health Study. Diabetologia 2012; 55(1): 80–87. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125–011–2284–4>.

13. Saltiel AR, Kahn CR. Insulin signaling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Nature 2001; 414(6865): 799–806. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/414799a>.

14. Cannon CP. Mixed dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease: clinical implications. Am J Cardiol 2008; 102(12A): 5L-9L. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.09.067>.

15. Grant PJ. Diabetes mellitus as a prothrombotic condition. J Intern Med 2007; 262(2): 157–171. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365–2796.2007.01824.x>.

16. Perk J, De Backer G, Gohlke H et al. European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012). The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). Eur Heart J 2012; 33(13): 1635–1701. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehs092>. Erratum in Eur Heart J 2012; 33(17): 2126.

17. Pencina MJ, D’Agostino RB Sr, Larson MG et al. Predicting the 30-year risk of cardiovascular disease: the Framingham heart study. Circulation 2009; 119(24): 3078–3084. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.816694>.

18. Gerstein HC, Mann JF, Yi Q et al. Albuminuria and risk of cardiovscular events, death and heart failure in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. JAMA 2001; 286(4): 421–426.

19. Gaede P, Hildebrandt P, Hess G et al. Plasma N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide as a major risk marker for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. Diabetologia 2005; 48(1): 156–163. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125–004–1607–0>.

20. Anand DV, Lim E, Hopkins D et al. Risk stratification in uncomplicated type 2 diabetes: prospective evaluation of the combined use of coronary artery calcium imaging and selective myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Eur Heart J 2006; 27(6): 713–721. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehi808>.

21. Hanssen NM, Hujberts MS, Schalkwijk CG et al. Associations between the ankle-brachial index and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality are similar in individuals without and with type 2 diabetes: nineteen-year follow-up of a poulation-based cohort study. Diabetes Care 2012; 35(8): 1731–1735. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc12–0178>.

22. Nilsson PM, Cederholm J, Zethelius BR et al. Trends in blood pressure control in patients with type 2 diabetes: data from the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR). Blood Press 2011; 20(6): 348–354. Dostupné z DOI: <http://doi:10.3109/08037051.2011.587288>.

23. Redon J, Cifkova R, Laurent S. Mechanisms of hypertension in the cardiometabolic syndrome. J Hypertens 2009;27(3):441–451. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e32831e13e5>.

24. Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA et al. Long-term follow-up-after tight control of blood pressure in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;359(15):1565–1576. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0806359>.

25. McQuaid SE, Hodson L, Neville MJ et al. Downregulation of adipose tissue fatty acid traficking in obesity: a driver for ectopic fat deposition? Diabetes 2011;60(1):47–55. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db10–0867>.

26. Baigent C, Blackwell L, Emberson J et al. Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170.000 participants in 26 randomised trials. Lancet 2010; 376(9753): 1670–1681. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140–6736(10)61350–5>.

27. Mills EJ, O’Regan C, Eyawo O et al. Intensive statin therapy compared with moderate dosing for prevention of cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis of 40 000 patients. Eur Heart J 2011; 32(11): 1409–1415. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehr035>.

28. Leiter LA, Betteridge DJ, Farnier M et al. Lipid-altering efficacy and safety profile of combination therapy with ezetimibe/statin vs statin monotherapy in patients with and without diabetes: an analysis of pooled data from 27 clinical trials. Diabetes Obes Metab 2011; 13(7): 615–628. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1463–1326.2011.01383.x>.

29. Colhoun HM, Betteridge DG, Durrington PN et al. Priamary prevention of cardiovascular disease with atorvastatin in type 2 diabetes in the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 364(9435): 685–696. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140–6736(04)16895–5>.

30. Collins R, Armitage J, Parish S et al. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin in 5963 people with diabetes: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 361(9374): 2005–2016.

31. Sever PS, Poulter NR, Dahlof B et al. Reduction in cardiovascular events with atorvastatin in 2.532 patients with type 2 diabetes: Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial: lipid-lowering arm (ASCOT-LLA). Diabetes Care 2005; 28(5): 1151–1157.

32. Bruckert E, Labreuche J, Deplanque D et al. Fibrates effect on cardiovascular risk is greater in patients with high triglyceride levels or atherogenic dyslipidemia profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2011; 57(2): 267–272. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0b013e318202709f>.

33. Santilli F, Formoso G, Sraccia P et al. Postprandial hyperglycemia is a determinant of platelet activation in early type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Thromb Hoemost 2010; 8(4): 828–837. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1538–7836.2010.03742.x>.

34. DiChiara J, Bilden KP, Tantry US et al. The effect of aspirin dosing on platelet function in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: an analysis from the aspirin-induced platelet effect (ASPECT) study. Diabetes 2007; 56(12): 3014–3019. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db07–0707>.

35. Patrono C, Andreotti F, Arnesen H et al. Antiplatelet agents for the treatment and prevention of atherothrombosis. Eur Heart J 2011; 32(23): 2922–2932. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehr373>.

36. James S, Dudaj A, Aylward P et al. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in acute coronary syndromes in relation to renal function: results from the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. Circulation 2010;122(11):1056–1067. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.933796>.

37. Gaede P, Vedel P, Parving HH et al. Intensified multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria: the Steno type 2 randomised study. Lancet 1999; 353(9153): 617–622. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140–6736(98)07368–1>.

38. Janssen PG, Gorter KJ, Stolk RP et al. Randomised controlled trial of intensive multifactorial treatment for cardiovascular risk in patients with screen- detected type 2 diabetes: 1-year data from the ADDITION Netherlands study. Br J Gen Pract 2009; 59(558): 43–48. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.3399/bjgp09X394851>.

39. Anselmino M, Malmberg K, Ohrvik J et al. Evidence-based medication and revascularization: powerful tools in the management of patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease: a report from the Euro Heart Survey on diabetes and the heart. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2008; 15(2): 216–223. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJR.0b013e3282f335d0>.

40. Bartnik M, Ryden L, Ferrari R et al. The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation in patients with coronary artery disease across Europe. The Euro Heart Survey on diabetes and the heart. Eur Heart J 2004; 25(21): 1880–1890. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ehj.2004.07.027>.

41. Fonseca VA. Effects of beta-blockers on glucose and lipid metabolism. Curr Med Res Opin 2010; 26(3): 615–629. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1185/03007990903533681>.

42. Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J et al. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000; 342(3): 145–153. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200001203420301>. Erratum in 2000; 342(18):1376. N Engl J Med 2000; 342(10): 748.

43. Fox K, Garcia MA, Ardissino D et al. Guidelines on the management of stable angina pectoris: executive summary: The Task Force on the Management of Stable Angina Pectoris of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart 2006; 27(11): 1341–1381. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehl001>.

44. Fox K, Ferrari R, Böhm M et al. Ivabradine for patients with stable coronary artery disease and left-ventricular systolic dysfunction (BEAUTIFUL): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2008; 372(9641): 807–816. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140–6736(08)61170–8>.

45. Swedberg K, Komajda M, Böhm M et al. Ivabradine and outcomes in chronic heart failure (SHIFT): a randomized placebo controlled study. Lancet 2010; 376(9744): 875–885. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140–6736(10)61198–1>. Erratum in Lancet 2010; 376(9757): 1988.

46. Alderman EL, Kip KE, Whitlow PL et al. Native coronary disease progression exceeds failed revascularization as cause of angina after five years in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation (BARI). J Am Coll Cardiol 2004; 44(4): 766–774. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2004.05.041>.

47. Lagerqvist B, Husted S, Kontny F et al. 5-year outcomes in the FRISC-II randomised trial of an invasive versus a non-invasive strategy in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome: a follow-up study. Lancet 2006; 368(9540): 998–1004. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140–6736(06)69416–6>.

48. Hlatky MA, Boothroyd DB, Bravata DM et al. Coronary artery bypass surgery compared with percutaneous coronary interventions for multivessel disease: a collaborative analysis of individual patient data from ten randomised trials. Lancet 2009; 373(9670): 1190–1197. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140–6736(09)60552–3>.

49. Mulukutla SR, Vlachos HA, Marroquin OC et al. Impact of drug-eluting stents among insulin-treated diabetic patients: a report from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Dynamic Registry. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2008; 1(2): 139–147. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2008.02.005>.

50. Bertoni AG, Hundley WG, Massing MW et al. Heart failure prevalence, incidence and mortality in the elderly with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27(3): 699–703.

51. Kengne AP, Turnbull F, MacMahon S. The Framingham Study, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease: turning back the clock. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2010; 53(1): 45–51. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2010.02.010>.

52. MacDonald MR, Petrie MC, Hawkins NM et al. Diabetes, left ventricular systolic dysfunction and chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J 2008;29(10): 1224–1240. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehn156>.

53. Amato L, Paolisso G, Cacciatiore F et al. Congestive heart failure predicts the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the elderly. The Osservatorio Geriatrica Regione Campania Group. Diabetes Metab 1997; 23(3): 213–218.

54. Jarnert C, Melcher A, Caidahl K et al. Left atrial velocity vector imaging for the detection and quantification of left ventricular diastolic function in type 2 diabetes. Eur J Heart Fail 2008; 10(11): 1080–1087. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejheart.2008.08.012>.

55. Liu JE, Palmieri V, Roman MJ et al. The impact of diabetes on left ventricular-filling pattern in normotensive and hypertensive adults: the Strong Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 37(7): 1943–1949.

56. Vaur L, Gueret P, Lievre M et al. Development of congestive heart failure in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria or proteinuria: observations from the DIABHYCAR (type 2 DIABetes, Hypertension, CArdiovascular Events and Ramipril) study. Diabetes Care 2003; 26(3): 855–860. Erratum in Diabetes Care 2003; 26(8): 2489.

57. Domanski M, Krause-Steinrauf H, Deedwania P et al. The effect of diabetes on outcomes of patients with advanced heart failure in the BEST trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 42(5): 914–922.

58. Deedwania PC, Giles TD, Klibaner M et al. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of metoprolol CR/XL in patients with diabetes nad chronic heart failure: experiences from MERIT-HF. Am Heart J 2005; 149(1): 159–167. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2004.05.056>.

59. McMurray JJ, Adamopoulus S, Anker SD et al. ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur Heart J 2012; 33(14): 1787–1847. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehs104>. Erratum in Eur Heart J 2013; 34(2): 158.

60. Gerstein HC, Yusuf S, Bosch J et al. Effect of rosiglitazone on the frequency of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006; 368(9541): 1096–1105. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140–6736(06)69420–8>. Erratum in Lancet 2006; 368(9549): 1770.

61. Eurich DT, Majumdar SR, McAlister FA et al. Improved clinical outcomes associated with metformin in patients with diabetes and heart failure. Diabetes Care 2005; 28(10): 2345–2351.

62. [UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS)]. GroupIntensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). . Lancet 1998; 352(9131): 837–853. Erratum in Lancet 1999; 354(9178): 602.

63. Marso SP, Daniels GH, Brown-Frandsen K et al. Liraglutide and Cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. N Engl. J Med 2016; 375(4): 311- 322. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1603827>.

64. Marso SP, Bain SC, Consoli A et al. Semaglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2016; 375(19): 1834–1844. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1607141>.

65. Scirica BM, Bhatt DL, Braunwald E et al. Saxagliptin and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 2013; 369(14): 1317–1326. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1307684>.

66. White WB, Cannon CP, Heller SR et al. Alogliptin after acute coronary syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2013; 369(14): 1327–1335. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1305889>.

67. Zinman B, Wanner Ch, Lachin JM et al. Empagliflozin, cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl. J Med 2015; 373(22): 2117–2128. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1504720>.

68. Neal B, Perkovic V, Mahaffey KW et al. Canagliflozin and cardiovascular and renal events in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2017; 377(7): 644–657. Dostupné z DOI: <https://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1611925>.

69. Go AS, Hylek EM, Philips KA et al. Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the AnTicoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) Study. JAMA 2001; 285(18): 2370–2375.

70. Levy S. Maarek M, Coumel P et al. Characterization of different subsets of atrial fibrillation in general practice in France: the ALFa study. The College of French Cardiologists. Circulation 1999; 99(3): 3028–3035.

71. Hughes M, Lip GY. Stroke and thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation: a systematic review of stroke risk factors, risk stratification schema and cost effectiveness data. Thromb Haemost 2008; 99(2): 295–304. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH07–08–0508>.

72. Camm AJ, Kirchhof P, Lip GY et al. Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2010; 31(19): 2369–2429. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehq278>.

73. Huikuri HV, Castellanos A, Myerburg RJ. Sudden death due to cardiac arrhythmias. N Engl J Med 2001; 345(20): 1473–1482. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra000650>.

74. Priori SG, Aliot E, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C et al. Task Force on Sudden Cardiac Death of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2001; 22(16): 1374–1450. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/euhj.2001.2824>. Erratum in Eur Heart J 2002; 23(3): 257.

75. Kannel WB, Wilson PW, D’Agustino RB et al. Sudden coronary death in women. Am Heart J 1998; 136(2): 205–212. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/hj.1998.v136.90226>.

76. Junttila MJ, Barthel P, Myerburg RJ et al. Sudden cardiac death after myocardial infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Heart Rhythm 2010; 7(10): 1396–1403. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2010.07.031>.

77. Zipes DP, Camm AJ, Borggrefe M et al. ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: a report of the Americam College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (writing committee to develop Guidelines for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Deaht): developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation 2006; 114(10): e385-e484. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.178233>.

78. Stettler C, Allemann S, Juni P et al. Glycemic control and macrovascular disease in types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus: Meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am Heart J 2006; 152(1): 27–38. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2005.09.015>.

79. Tendera M, Aboyans V, Bartelink ML et al. ESC Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral artery disesases: Document covering atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteries: the Task Force on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Artery Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2011: 32(22): 2851–2906. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehr211>.

80. Lepantalo M, Apelqvist J, Setacci C et al. Diabetic foot. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2011; 42(Suppl 2): S60-S74. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1078–5884(11)60012–9>.

81. Grau AJ, Weimar C, Buggle F et al. Risk factors, outcome and treatment in subtypes of ischemic stroke: the German stroke data bank. Stroke 2001; 32(11): 2559–2566.

82. de Boer IH, Rue TC, Cleary PA et al. Long-term renal outcomes of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria :an analysis of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications cohort. Arch Intern Med 2011; 171(5): 412–420. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinternmed.2011.16>.

83. Afkarian M, Sachs MC, Kestenbaum B et al. Kidney disease and icreased mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. J Am Soc Nephrol 2013; 24(2): 302–308. Dostupné z DOI: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2012070718>.

Labels
Diabetology Endocrinology Internal medicine
Login
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account