Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease

Authors: Adrián Okša
Authors‘ workplace: Lekárska fakulta SZU v Bratislave
Published in: Forum Diab 2023; 12(2): 65-67


Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several studies have also confirmed the association between MS and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The basis of MS is insulin resistance and metabolically induced inflammation in the expansion of visceral adipose tissue. Other pathogenetic factors in renal damage are imbalance in adipokine production, activation of the renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system and the sympathetic nervous system, increased endothelin 1 concentration, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and compression of the renal parenchyma due to accumulation of perirenal fat. These factors result in glomerular hyperfiltration, endothelial dysfunction, podocyte damage, mesangial expansion, glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Elucidating the mechanisms by which MS induces renal damage is crucial to prevent the onset and progression of CKD.


metabolic syndrome – insulin resistance – chronic kidney disease – visceral obesity – metabolically induced inflammation – mitochondrial dysfunction


1. Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM et al. Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome: A Joint Interim Statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation 2009; 120(16): 1640–1645. Dostupné z DOI: <>.

2. Saklayen MG. The Global Epidemic of the Metabolic Syndrome. Curr Hypertens Rep 2018; (20)2: 12. Dostupné z DOI: <–018–0812-z>.

3. Wu N, Qin Y, Chen S et al. Association Between Metabolic Syndrome and Incident Chronic Kidney Disease Among Chinese: A Nation-Wide Cohort Study and Updated Meta-Analysis. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2021; 37(7): e3437. Dostupné z DOI: <>.

4. Alizadeh S, Ahmadi M, Ghorbani Nejad B et al. Metabolic Syndrome and its Components Are Associated With Increased Chronic Kidney Disease Risk: Evidence From a Meta-Analysis on 11 109 003 Participants From 66 Studies. Int J Clin Pract 2018: e13201. Dostupné z DOI: <>.

5. Lin L, Tan W, Pan X et al. Metabolic Syndrome-Related Kidney Injury: A Review and Update. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022; 13: 904001. Dostupné z DOI: <>.

6. Zhang X, Lerman LO. The Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease. Transl Res 2017; 183: 14–25. Dostupné z DOI: <>.

7. D’Agati VD, Chagnac A, de Vries AP et al. Obesity-related glomerulopathy: clinical and pathologic characteristics and pathogenesis. Nat Rev Nephrol 2016; 12(8): 453–471. Dostupné z DOI: <>.

8. Okša A. Hypertenzná nefroangioskleróza. In: Dzúrik R, Šašinka M, Mydlík M et al (eds). Nefrológia. Herba: Bratislava 2004: 640–644.

9. Palmer BF, Clegg DJ. Metabolic Flexibility and Its Impact on Health Outcomes. Mayo Clin Proc 2022; 97(4): 761–776. Dostupné z DOI: <>.

10. Irazabal MV, Chade AR, Eirin A. Renal mitochondrial injury in the pathogenesis of CKD: mtDNA and mitomiRs. Clin Sci (Lond) 2022; 136(5): 345–360. Dostupné z DOI: <>.

Diabetology Endocrinology Internal medicine
Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.


Don‘t have an account?  Create new account